Salmonella spp

The goal of this study was to enhance the antimicrobial effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) through addition of synergistic treatment with ultrasound (US) and mild heat treatment in order to improve the microbial safety of fresh-cut bell pepper. To evaluate the synergistic effects, the Weibull model was used to mathematically measure the effectiveness of the individual and combined treatments against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium on the pepper. The combined treatment (SAEW+US+60 °C) resulted in the TR values of 0.04 and 0.09 min for L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium, respectively, as consequence of the minimum value. Subsequently, texture analysis was carried out to test the potential effect on quality of the samples due to the involved mild heat and ultrasound treatment. When compared to the control, there was no significant change (p ≥ 0.05) in the texture (color and hardness) of the samples that were treated by 1 min of the combined treatment (SAEW+US+60 °C) during storage at 4 °C for 7 days. This combined treatment achieved approximately 3.0 log CFU/g reduction in the two pathogens. The results demonstrate that the involved hurdle factors which are ultrasound and mild heat achieved the synergistic effect of SAEW against the two pathogens. According to the results of texture analysis, 1 min of SAEW+US+60 °C is the optimal condition due to without negative influence on the quality of the samples during the storage. The optimal condition shows the enhanced antimicrobial effect of SAEW and enables to improve microbial safety of fresh bell pepper in food industry as a consequence of hurdle approach.

‘Electrolyzed water’ generators are readily available in the food industry as a renewable source of hypochlorous acid that eliminates the need for workers to handle hazardous hypochlorite concentrates. We applied electrolyzed water (EW) directly to multi-strain cocktails of Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella sp. at 250 ppm free available chlorine (FAC) and achieved greater than 6-log reductions in 2 min. Lower EW values were examined as antimicrobial interventions for fresh meat (beef carcasses), processed meats (frankfurters), and food contact surfaces (slicing blades). Little or no reduction relative to controls was observed when generic E. coli-inoculated beef carcasses or L. monocytogenes-inoculated frankfurters were showered with EW. Spray application of EW (25 and 250-ppm FAC) onto L. monocytogenes-inoculated slicing blades showed that greater reductions were obtained with ‘clean’ (3.6 and 5.7-log reduction) vs. ‘dirty’ (0.6 and 3.3-log reduction) slicing blades, respectively. Trials with L. monocytogenes-inoculated protein-EW solutions demonstrated that protein content as low as 0.1% is capable of eliminating FAC, reducing antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes. EW appears better positioned as a surface sanitizer with minimal organic material that can otherwise act as an effective reducing agent to the oxidizing solution rendering it ineffective.

The capacity of slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW), in both liquid and spray form, to inactivate bacteria was evaluated as a potential candidate for biosecurity enhancement in poultry production. SAHW (containing 50 or 100 ppm chlorine, pH 6) was able to inactivate Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infantis in liquid to below detectable levels (≤2.6 log10 CFU/ml) within 5 sec of exposure. In addition, SAHW antibacterial capacity was evaluated by spraying it using a nebulizer into a box containing these bacteria, which were present on the surfaces of glass plates and rayon sheets. SAHW was able to inactivate both bacterial species on the glass plates (dry condition) and rayon sheets within 5 min spraying and 5 min contact times, with the exception of 50 ppm SAHW on the rayon sheets. Furthermore, a corrosivity test determined that SAHW does not corrode metallic objects, even at the longest exposure times (83 days). Our findings demonstrate that SAHW is a good candidate for biosecurity enhancement in the poultry industry. Spraying it on the surfaces of objects, eggshells, egg incubators and transport cages could reduce the chances of contamination and disease transmission. These results augment previous findings demonstrating the competence of SAHW as an anti-viral disinfectant.

Automated produce washers can be a useful processing aid when treating fresh produce contaminated with pathogens. The use of near neutral pH electrolyzed (NEO) water as a wash or sanitizing solution has been shown to lead to significant reductions of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh produce. To further enhance reported pathogen reductions, the effects of a combined NEO water (155 mg/L free chlorine, pH 6.5) and ultrasound wash protocol on lettuce and tomatoes inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium DT 104 were studied. The effects of the pH of NEO water and washer agitation on pathogen reductions were also assessed. Inoculated tomatoes and lettuce leaves were treated with either chilled deionized water or NEO water, with or without 20 kHz ultrasound (130 W and 210 W). Tomatoes were treated for 1, 3 and 5 min while lettuce was treated for 5, 10 and 15 min. Ultrasound significantly increased the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of NEO water (p < 0.05) but did not affect the pH and free chlorine concentration (p > 0.05). Increased washing time and higher ultrasonic power led to significantly greater reductions of both pathogens on produce items (p < 0.05). NEO water combined with 210 W ultrasonication for 15 min led to 4.4 and 4.3 log reductions of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium on lettuce, respectively, while 210 W ultrasound for 5 min completely inactivated both pathogens on tomatoes. Both pathogens were completely inactivated in NEO water solutions, suggesting that its use presents little chance of cross-contamination.

An official journal of the Poultry Science Association.

First self-published in 1921, Poultry Science is an internationally renowned monthly journal, known as the authoritative source for a broad range of poultry information and high-caliber research. The journal plays a pivotal role in the dissemination of preeminent poultry-related knowledge across all disciplines. Poultry Science is an Open Access journal with no subscription charges, meaning authors who publish here can make their research immediately, permanently, and freely accessible worldwide while retaining copyright to their work.

An international journal, Poultry Science publishes original papers, research notes, symposium papers, and reviews of basic science as applied to poultry. This authoritative source of poultry information is consistently ranked by Clarivate’s Impact Factor as one of the top 10 agriculture, dairy and animal science journals to deliver high-caliber research. Currently it is the highest-ranked (by Impact Factor and Eigenfactor) journal dedicated to publishing poultry research. Subject areas include breeding, genetics, education, production, management, environment, health, behavior, welfare, immunology, molecular biology, metabolism, nutrition, physiology, reproduction, processing, and products.

The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of neutral pH electrolyzed (NEO) water (155 mg/L free chlorine, pH 7.5) in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 on romaine lettuce, iceberg lettuce, and tomatoes washed in an automated produce washer for different times and washing speeds. Tomatoes and lettuce leaves were spot inoculated with 100 μL of a 5 strain cocktail mixture of either pathogen and washed with 10 or 8 L of NEO water, respectively. Washing lettuce for 30 min at 65 rpm led to the greatest reductions, with 4.2 and 5.9 log CFU/g reductions achieved for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium respectively on romaine, whereas iceberg lettuce reductions were 3.2 and 4.6 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium respectively. Washing tomatoes for 10 min at 65 rpm achieved reductions greater than 8 and 6 log CFU/tomato on S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 respectively. All pathogens were completely inactivated in NEO water wash solutions. No detrimental effects on the visual quality of the produce studied were observed under all treatment conditions. Results show the adoption of this washing procedure in food service operations could be useful in ensuring produce safety.

An official journal of the Poultry Science Association.

First self-published in 1921, Poultry Science is an internationally renowned monthly journal, known as the authoritative source for a broad range of poultry information and high-caliber research. The journal plays a pivotal role in the dissemination of preeminent poultry-related knowledge across all disciplines. Poultry Science is an Open Access journal with no subscription charges, meaning authors who publish here can make their research immediately, permanently, and freely accessible worldwide while retaining copyright to their work.

An international journal, Poultry Science publishes original papers, research notes, symposium papers, and reviews of basic science as applied to poultry. This authoritative source of poultry information is consistently ranked by Clarivate’s Impact Factor as one of the top 10 agriculture, dairy and animal science journals to deliver high-caliber research. Currently it is the highest-ranked (by Impact Factor and Eigenfactor) journal dedicated to publishing poultry research. Subject areas include breeding, genetics, education, production, management, environment, health, behavior, welfare, immunology, molecular biology, metabolism, nutrition, physiology, reproduction, processing, and products.

The bactericidal activity of acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water against
Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria
monocytogenes on raw fish, chicken and beef surfaces

The bactericidal efficacy of acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (AC-EW) (pH ¼ 2.30, free
chlorine ¼ 38 ppm) and sterile distilled water (DW) on three pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7
Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes) inoculated on raw trout skin, chicken legs and
beef meat surfaces was evaluated. The decontaminating effect of AC-EW and DW was tested for
0 (control), 1, 3, 5 and 10 min at 22 C. AC-EW significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the three pathogens in
the inoculated samples compared to the control and DW. The level of reduction ranged between ca.1.5
e1.6 logs for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in the inoculated foods. However, AC-EW exhibited
less bactericidal effect against L. monocytogenes (1.1e1.3 logs reduction). AC-EW elicited about 1.6e2.0
log reduction in the total mesophilic count. Similar treatment with DW reduced pathogens load by ca.
0.2e1.0 log reduction and total mesophiles by ca. 0.5e0.7 logs. No complete elimination of the three
pathogens was obtained using AC-EW possibly because of the level of organic matter and blood
moving from food samples to the AC-EW solution. This study demonstrates that AC-EW could
considerably reduce common foodborne pathogens in fish, chicken and beef products.

The efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) to inactivate foodborne pathogens and indigenous microbiota on shell eggs was evaluated and compared to chlorine dioxide (CD), acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) and NaClO solution. The eggs were artificially inoculated with S. enteritidis, E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus and sprayed or immersed with SAEW, alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW) followed by SAEW (AlEW+SAEW), CD, AEW and NaClO solution, respectively. The effect of SAEW on the natural microbiota of shell eggs was also determined. Spraying shell eggs with SAEW, CD and NaClO solution at an ACC of 60 mg/L had no significant bactericidal difference for foodborne pathogens and indigenous microbiota on shell eggs, and the difference of disinfection effect between SAEW and AEW was not significant, whereas the bactericidal activity of SAEW for E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus, total aerobic bacteria and moulds and yeasts was significantly higher than that of CD and NaClO solution at ACCs of 80 or 100 mg/L. SAEW was found to be more effective when used in conjunction with AlEW, and higher reductions were obtained with the immersion treatment. Results indicate that the disinfectant efficiency of SAEW is equivalent to or higher than that of chlorine dioxide and NaClO solution and therefore SAEW shows the potential to be used for sanitization of egg shells as an environmentally friendly disinfection agent.

Pathogenic contamination is a food safety concern. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) in killing pathogens, namely, Vibrio parahaemolyticusVibrio vulnificusSalmonella Enteritidis, and Escherichia coli in shrimp. Pure cultures of each pathogen were submerged separately in NEW containing five different chlorine concentrations: 10, 30, 50, 70, and 100 ppm. For each concentration, three submersion times were tested: 1, 3, and 5 min. The population of V. parahaemolyticus was rapidly reduced even at low concentrations, but prolonged contact times caused only a slight reduction. V. vulnificus was gradually inhibited with increasing NEW concentrations and contact times. For the V. parahaemolyticus applications of 70 ppm for 5 min and of 100 ppm for 3 min, each eliminated 7 log CFU/ml. For V. vulnificus, applications of 50 ppm for 3 min and 100 ppm for 1 min, each eliminated 7 log CFU/ml. Salmonella Enteritidis and E. coli were slightly reduced by NEW. Applications of 50 ppm for 15 min and 10 ppm for 30 min completely eliminated 4.16 log CFU/g of V. parahaemolyticus in inoculated shrimp, while only a 1-log CFU/g reduction of V. vulnificus was detected. Soaking shrimp in 10 ppm NEW for 30 min did not affect its sensory quality. Our results suggest NEW could be an alternative sanitizer to improve the microbiological quality of seafood.

Preventing Salmonella Colonization of Chickens
Electrostatic Application of Electrolyzed Oxidative Acidic Water

Salmonella spp. may be found in the nest box of
breeder chickens, cold egg-storage rooms at the
farm, on the hatchery truck, or in the hatchery
environment (5). These bacteria may then be spread
to fertilized hatching eggs on the shell or, in some
cases, may penetrate the shell and reside just beneath the surface of the eggshell.
Research has demonstrated that contamination of
raw poultry products with Salmonella spp. may be
attributable to cross-contamination in the hatchery
from Salmonella infected eggs or surfaces to uninfected baby chicks during the hatching process. Cox et
al. (6 and 7) reported that broiler and breeder hatcheries were highly contaminated with Salmonella spp.
Within the broiler hatchery, 71 percent of eggshell
fragments, 80 percent of chick conveyor belts swabs,
and 74 percent of pad samples placed under newly
hatched chicks contained Salmonella spp. (6).
 

To evaluate the disinfection effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolysed water (SAEW, pH 6·25–6·53), a new environmental friendly agent for inactivating micro-organisms adhered to the facility and aerosolized in the air of the swine barns and to explore the application of SAEW in livestock industries.

Bacteria and fungi were isolated from the swine house air and treated by SAEW. The SAEW solution was flushed onto surfaces and sprayed within the whole swine barn. SAEW with an available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 300 mg l−1 can inhibit isolated microbes completely. The usage of SAEW (300 mg l−1) resulted in a significant (< 0·05) reduction in microbes on the wall, rail and floor after flushing disinfection. Additionally, spraying SAEW at an ACC of 300 mg l−1 reduced 59% of the airborne organisms in 30 min and kept the population of microbes at a reduced level for at least 8 h. SAEW treatment also reduced pathogens on surfaces (< 0·03) after spraying disinfection except on the surface of the wall.

 It doesn’t involve production, handling and transportation of using conventional chlorine (Hricova, Stephan, & Zweifel, 2008), economical because the EW production only involves water, salt and electricity. It can be generated on site when needed, being much less costly than conventional chlorine aspect of sanitiser generation, transporting and handling (Hricova et al., 2008;Huang, Hung, Hsu, Huang, & Hwang, 2008), safety thus it has been approved as a food additive in Japan, and the application on food was also approved by both U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (Hricova et al., 2008), and having strong sanitising effect because of major component being hypochlorous acid and there are some other effective components including free radicals, active oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and ozone gas, which are not existed in clorox and with higher oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) (Yang, Feirtag, & Diez-Gonzalez, 2013). However, at low pH, EW is corrosive, has a short shelf-life, and may be toxic to the operator (Ayebah & Hung, 2005;Waters, Tatum, & Hung, 2014;Xuan et al., 2016). …
… Even though several studies have reported the bactericidal effects of both EW and NEW (Luo, Kim, Wang, & Oh, 2016;Park, Guo, Rahman, Ahn, & Oh, 2009;Thorn, Lee, Robinson, Greenman, & Reynolds, 2012;Zhang, Li, Jadeja, Fang, & Hung, 2016), few researchers have investigated the effects of processing factors on the performance of EW/NEW generators. Current commercial EW-producing units are quite large and not convenient for applications in households and small food industries (Yang et al., 2013). A portable, user-friendly NEW generator is necessary to meet the market demands and improve food safety. …

 Anticmicrobial effect of slightly acidic low concentration electrolyzed water (SlALcEW) and strong acidic electrolyzed water (StAEW) on fresh chicken breast meat was evaluated in this study. Meat samples each of 10 ± 0.2 g in weight and 2.5 × 2.5 cm2 in size were experimentally inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19115) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC 14028) and subjected to dipping treatment (22 ± 2 °C for 10 min) with SlALcEW and StAEW. Shelf-life study was conducted for inoculated and noninoculated meat samples treated with SlALcEW and StAEW at storage temperatures of 5, 15, and 25 °C. Dipping treatment with electrolyzed water significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the background and inoculated pathogens compared to untreated controls. The reduction of 1.5 to 2.3 log CFU/g was achieved by SlALcEW and StAEW against background flora, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the SlALcEW and StAEW treatments efficacy. Comparing treated samples to untreated controls showed that SlALcEW and StAEW treatments extended the shelf life of chicken meat at different temperatures with marginal changes of sensory quality. Although SlALcEW and StAEW treatments showed similar antimicrobial effects but SlALcEW was more beneficial in practical application for its semineutral pH and low chlorine content. 

Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) as a novel antimicrobial agent is generated by electrolysis of dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) and/or sodium chloride (NaCl) solution in a cell with or without a separating membrane. The ultraviolet absorption spectra were used to determine the concentration of hypochlorous acid (HClO) and hypochlorite ion (ClO–) in SAEW generated by four different methods and their bactericidal efficiency for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enteritidis was evaluated. During the production of equivalent available chlorine in SAEW, more HClO was produced by electrolysis of HCl solution in a non-membrane generator and mixing the acid and alkaline electrolyzed water generated in a generator with membrane, compared with the methods of adding HCl to neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) and electrolyzing the mixture of NaCl and HCl solution in a non-membrane cell. At the 10 mg/L available chlorine concentration, SAEW produced by the methods with more HClO generation had significantly higher (p<0.05) bactericidal efficiency for inactivation of both pathogens.

The sanitization efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) against food pathogens on selected fresh ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and sprouts was evaluated and compared to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. RTE vegetables and sprouts were dip-inoculated with Escherichia coli (Ecoli) and Salmonella spp. and dip-treated with SAEW, NaOCl solution for 5 min. SAEW treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the total aerobic mesophilic bacteria from Chinese celery, lettuce and daikon sprouts by 2.7, 2.5 and 2.45 log10CFU/g, respectively relative to un-treated. Pathogens were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced from Chinese celery, lettuce and daikon sprouts by 2.7, 2.8 and 2.8 log10CFU/g (E. coli) and 2.87, 2.91 and 2.91 log10CFU/g (Salmonella spp.), respectively following a SAEW treatment. SAEW and NaOCl solution showed no significant sanitization difference (p > 0.05). Results demonstrate that SAEW at low chlorine concentration and a near neutral pH is a potential non-thermal food sanitizer that could represent an alternative to NaOCl solution and would reduce the amount of free chlorine used in fresh-cut vegetables industry, since the same microbial reduction as NaOCl solution is obtained.

This study was intended to evaluate the bactericidal effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) and chlorinated water on populations of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on avocados (Persea americana var. Hass). In the first experiment, inoculated avocados were treated with a water wash applied by spraying tap water containing 1 mg/liter free chlorine for 15 s (WW); WW treatment and then spraying sodium hypochlorite in water containing 75 mg/liter free chlorine for 15 s (Cl75); WW treatment and then spraying alkaline EOW for 30 s (AkEW) and then spraying acid EOW (AcEW) for 15 s; and spraying AkEW and then AcEW. In another experiment, the inoculated avocados were treated by spraying AkEW and then AcEW for 15, 30, 60, or 90 s. All three pathogen populations were lowered between 3.6 and 3.8 log cycles after WW treatment. The application of Cl75 did not produce any further reduction in counts, whereas AkEW and then AcEW treatment resulted in significantly lower bacterial counts for L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 but not for Salmonella. Treatments with AkEW and then AcEW produced a significant decrease in L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7 populations, with estimated log reductions of 3.9 to 5.2, 5.1 to 5.9, and 4.2 to 4.9 log CFU/cm², respectively. Spraying AcEW for more than 15 s did not produce any further decrease in counts of Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7, whereas L. monocytogenes counts were significantly lower after spraying AcEW for 60 s. Applying AkEW and then AcEW for 15 or 30 s seems to be an effective alternative to reduce bacterial pathogens on avocado surfaces.

Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite solution) is the most common disinfectant used in the fresh-cut industry, however, environmental and health risks related to its use have resulted in a need to find new sanitizers. Electrolyzed water (EW) is a promising alternative, showing a broad spectrum of microbial decontamination. In this study the efficacy of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) as disinfectants of apple slices inoculated with Escherichia coliListeria innocua or Salmonella choleraesuis, individually or in a mixture, were compared to that of sodium hypochlorite solution and distilled water. Apple slices were inoculated with a 107 cfu/mL suspension of the pathogens and treated with diluted electrolyzed water. Bactericidal activity of washing treatments was assessed after 30 min and after storage for 5 days at 4 °C. AEW and NEW disinfection efficacy was compared to that of washings with sodium hypochlorite at the same free chlorine concentration and with distilled water. AEW diluted to 100 mg/L of free chlorine was the treatment with the highest bactericidal activity in all tested conditions (reductions obtained ranged from 1.2 to 2.4 log units) followed by NEW and AEW at 100 and 50 mg/L of free chlorine respectively. In general these treatments were equal or more effective than sodium hypochlorite washings at 100 mg/L of free chlorine. The effect of the different sanitizer washings when pathogens where in a mixture was similar to that which occurred when pathogens were individually inoculated. The effectiveness of all washings slightly decreased when apple slices were stored for 5 days at 4 °C.

In this study we investigated the effects of low concentration electrolyzed water (LcEW) and several other sanitizers (strong acid electrolyzed water (SAEW), aqueous ozone (AO), 1% citric acid (CA) and sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl)) on the inactivation of natural microflora (total aerobic bacteria counts (TBC) and yeasts and moulds (YM)) and foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and Bacillus cereus) on oyster mushroom. The effects of temperature and treatment time on the antimicrobial activity of LcEW to reduce the populations of foodborne pathogens were also determined. LcEW showed the strongest bactericidal efficacy among all the sanitizers on TBC, YM and pathogens by reductions of 1.35, 1.08 and 1.90–2.16 log CFU/g after 3 min treatment at room temperature (23 ± 2 °C), respectively. There was no significant difference between the antimicrobial effects of LcEW and SAEW (P > 0.05). Among those sanitizers, their relative influence of inactivation was LcEW > NaOCl > CA > AO.

High microbial populations on mung beans and its sprouts are the primary reason of a short shelf life of these products, and potentially present pathogens may cause human illness outbreak. The efficiency for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) and Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis), which were artificially inoculated on mung bean seeds and sprouts, by means of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.0 to 6.5) generated through electrolysis of a mixture of NaCl and hydrochloric acid solution in a non-membrane electrolytic chamber, was evaluated at the different available chlorine concentrations (ACCs, 20–120 mg/l) and treatment time (3–15 min), respectively. The effect of SAEW treatment on the viability of seeds was also determined. Results indicate that the ACC had more significant effect on the bactericidal activity of SAEW for reducing both pathogens on the seeds and sprouts compared to treatment time (P < 0.05). The seeds and sprouts treated with SAEW at ACCs of 20 and 80 mg/l resulted in a reduction of 1.32–1.78 log10 CFU/g and 3.32–4.24 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, while 1.27–1.76 log10 CFU/g and 3.12–4.19 log10 CFU/g for S. enteritidis, respectively. The germination percentage of mung bean seeds was not significantly affected by the treatment of SAEW at an ACC of 20 mg/l for less than 10 min (P > 0.05). The finding of this study implies that SAEW with a near-neutral pH value and low available chlorine is an effective method to reduce foodborne pathogens on seeds and sprouts with less effects on the viability of seeds.

The sanitization efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) against food pathogens on selected fresh ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and sprouts was evaluated and compared to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. RTE vegetables and sprouts were dip-inoculated with Escherichia coli (Ecoli) and Salmonella spp. and dip-treated with SAEW, NaOCl solution for 5 min. SAEW treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the total aerobic mesophilic bacteria from Chinese celery, lettuce and daikon sprouts by 2.7, 2.5 and 2.45 log10CFU/g, respectively relative to un-treated. Pathogens were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced from Chinese celery, lettuce and daikon sprouts by 2.7, 2.8 and 2.8 log10CFU/g (E. coli) and 2.87, 2.91 and 2.91 log10CFU/g (Salmonella spp.), respectively following a SAEW treatment. SAEW and NaOCl solution showed no significant sanitization difference (p > 0.05). Results demonstrate that SAEW at low chlorine concentration and a near neutral pH is a potential non-thermal food sanitizer that could represent an alternative to NaOCl solution and would reduce the amount of free chlorine used in fresh-cut vegetables industry, since the same microbial reduction as NaOCl solution is obtained.

. In vitro E.O. water studies on cell suspensions of bacteria and bacteria in biofilms have shown good results in their ability to kill food pathogens and spoilage organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Pseudomonas spp. Ovissipour et al. 2015;Rahman et al. 2010). Research on the efficacy of E.O. water against those bacteria contaminating various food products has also shown excellent results in suppressing microbial contamination (Huang et al. 2006a;Kim and Hung 2012;Park et al. 2001;Pinto et al. 2015;Rahman et al. 2010;Shiroodi et al. 2016). …
… Ovissipour et al. 2015;Rahman et al. 2010). Research on the efficacy of E.O. water against those bacteria contaminating various food products has also shown excellent results in suppressing microbial contamination (Huang et al. 2006a;Kim and Hung 2012;Park et al. 2001;Pinto et al. 2015;Rahman et al. 2010;Shiroodi et al. 2016). …

In the current study, the effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on an in vitro inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Salmonella spp. was evaluated and compared with other sanitizers. SAEW (pH 5.6, 23mg/l available chlorine concentration; ACC; and 940mV oxidation reduction potential; ORP) was generated by electrolysis of dilute solution of HCl (2%) in a chamber of a non-membrane electrolytic cell. One milliliter of bacteria suspension (ca. 10-11 log(10)CFU/ml) was mixed with 9ml of SAEW, strong acidic electrolyzed water (StAEW; ca. 50mg/l ACC), sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl; ca.120mg/l ACC) and distilled water (DW) as control and treated for 60s. SAEW effectively reduced the population of E. coli, S. aureus and Salmonella spp. by 5.1, 4.8, and 5.2 log(10)CFU/ml. Although, ACC of SAEW was more than 5 times lower than that of NaOCl solution, they showed no significant bactericidal difference (p>0.05). However, the bactericidal effect of StAEW was significantly higher (p<0.05) than SAEW and NaOCl solution in all cases. When tested with each individual test solution, E. coli, S. aureus and Salmonella spp. reductions were not significantly different (p>0.05). These findings indicate that SAEW with low available chlorine concentration can equally inactivate E. coli, S. aureus and Salmonella spp. as NaOCl solution and therefore SAEW shows a high potential of application in agriculture and food industry as an environmentally friendly disinfection agent.

Antimicrobial effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water
for inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli
on fresh strawberries (Fragaria L.) 

Antimicrobial effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW: pH 5.6 ± 0.1, 20.5 ± 1.3 mg/L available
chlorine concentration; ACC) against indigenous aerobic mesophiles and inoculated Escherichia coli
and Salmonella spp. on fresh strawberry was assessed. The antimicrobial effect of SAEW was
compared with that of strong acidic electrolyzed water (StAEW) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)
solution. SAEW effectively reduced total aerobic mesophilic bacteria from strawberries by 1.68
log10CFU/g and was not significantly different from that of NaOCl solution (p > 0.05). Antimicrobial effect
of SAEW against Salmonella spp. and E. coli was indicated by a more than 2 log10CFU/g reduction of
their population and the effect was not significantly different from that of NaOCl solution and StAEW at
similar treatment conditions (p > 0.05). From these findings, SAEW with a near-neutral pH and low
available chlorine concentration exhibits an equivalent bactericidal effectiveness to NaOCl solution and
thus SAEW is a potential sanitizer that would be used as an alternative for StAEW and NaOCl solution
in the fresh fruit and vegetables industry. 

Acidic electrolyzed water (AC-EW) has strong bactericidal activity against foodborne pathogens on fresh vegetables. However, the efficacy of AC-EW is influenced by soil or other organic materials present. This study examined the bactericidal activity of AC-EW in the presence of organic matter, in the form of bovine serum against foodborne pathogens on the surfaces of green onions and tomatoes. Green onions and tomatoes were inoculated with a culture cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes. Treatment of these organisms with AC-EW containing bovine serum concentrations of 5, 10, 15, and 20 ml/l was performed for 15 s, 30 s, 1 min, 3 min and 5 min. The total residual chlorine concentrations of AC-EW decreased proportional to the addition of serum. The bactericidal activity of AC-EW also decreased with increasing bovine serum concentration, whereas unamended AC-EW treatment reduced levels of cells to below the detection limit (0.7 logCFU/g) within 3 min.

The efficiency of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) at different temperatures (4, 20 and 45 °C) for
inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis and it on the surface of shell eggs was evaluated. The bactericidal activity
of SAEW, sodium hypochlorite solution (NaClO) and acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) to inactivate S.
enteritidis was also compared. SAEW with a pH value of 6.0–6.5 used was generated by the electrolysis of a
dilute hydrochloric acid (2.4 mM) in a chamber without a membrane. Although the pH value of SAEW was
greatly higher than that of AEW (pH2.6–2.7), SAEW had a comparative powerful bactericidal activity at the
same available chlorine concentrations. The efficiency of SAEW for inactivation of pure S. enteritidis cultures
increased with increasing the available chlorine concentration and treatment time at the three different
temperatures. The S. enteritidis counts decreased to less than 1.0 log10 CFU/ml at available chlorine of 2 mg/l
and 100% inactivation (reduction of 8.2 log10 CFU/ml) was resulted in using SAEW with available chlorine
more than 4 mg/l at 4, 20 and 45 °C after 2 min treatment, whereas no reduction was observed in the control
samples. Moreover, SAEW was also effective for inactivating the S. enteritidis inoculated on the surface of
shell eggs. A reduction of 6.5 log10 CFU/g of S. enteritidis on shell eggs was achieved by SAEW containing
15 mg/l available chlorine for 3 min, but only a reduction of 0.9–1.2 log10 CFU/g for the control samples. No
survival of S. enteritidis was recovered in waste wash SAEW after treatment. The findings of this study
indicate that SAEW may be a promising disinfectant agent for the shell egg washing processing without
environmental pollution

Neutral (NEW) and acidic (AEW) electrolyzed water were stored in open or closed glass bottles under light or dark conditions at 20 °C for 30 days. The pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), electrical conductivity (EC), available chlorine concentration (ACC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and bactericidal efficiency of NEW and AEW were determined during storage or before and after storage, respectively. The pH and EC of NEW and AEW remained unchanged in storage. The ORP, ACC and DO of AEW decreased 22%, 100% and 52% under open storage conditions, respectively. Light had no significant effects on the physicochemical properties of NEW (P > 0.05). Bactericidal efficiency was not markedly affected by storage conditions for NEW, but decreased significantly for AEW under open storage conditions. Electrolyzed water should be stored in closed containers or used immediately to prevent the loss of available chlorine that is one of the main contributing factors for antimicrobial activity

Food safety issues and increases in food borne illnesses have promulgated the development of new sanitation methods to eliminate pathogenic organisms on foods and surfaces in food service areas. Electrolyzed oxidizing water (EO water) shows promise as an environmentally friendly broad spectrum microbial decontamination agent. EO water is generated by the passage of a dilute salt solution (∼1% NaCl) through an electrochemical cell. This electrolytic process converts chloride ions and water molecules into chlorine oxidants (Cl2, HOCl/ClO). At a near-neutral pH (pH 6.3–6.5), the predominant chemical species is the highly biocidal hypochlorous acid species (HOCl) with the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) of the solution ranging from 800 to 900 mV. The biocidal activity of near-neutral EO water was evaluated at 25 °C using pure cultures of Escherichia coliSalmonella typhimuriumStaphylococcus aureusListeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis. Treatment of these organisms, in pure culture, with EO water at concentrations of 20, 50, 100, and 120 ppm total residual chlorine (TRC) and 10 min of contact time resulted in 100% inactivation of all five organisms (reduction of 6.1–6.7 log10 CFU/mL).

 The ability of electrolyzed water (EW) to inactivate foodborne pathogens on the surfaces of lettuce and spinach was investigated. Lettuce and spinach leaves were inoculated with a cocktail of 3 strains each of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes and treated with acidic electrolyzed water (AC-EW), alkaline electrolyzed water (AK-EW), alkaline electrolyzed water followed by acidic electrolyzed water (sequential treatment, AK-EW + AC-EW), deionized water followed by acidic electrolyzed water (sequential treatment, DW + AC-EW), and deionized water (control, DW) for 15, 30 s, and 1, 3, and 5 min at room temperature (22 ± 2 °C). For all 3 pathogens, the same pattern of microbial reduction on lettuce and spinach were apparent. The relative efficacy of reduction was AC-EW > DW + AC-EW ≈ AK-EW + AC-EW > AK-EW > control. After a 3-min treatment of AC-EW, the 3 tested pathogens were reduced below the detection limit (0.7 log). DW + AC-EW and AK-EW + AC-EW produced the same levels of reduction after 5 min when compared to the control. AK-EW did not reduce levels of pathogens even after a 5-min treatment on lettuce and spinach. Results suggest that AC-EW treatment was able to significantly reduce populations of the 3 tested pathogens from the surfaces of lettuce and spinach with increasing time of exposure.

Consumption of minimally-processed, or fresh-cut, fruit and vegetables has rapidly increased in recent years, but there have also been several reported outbreaks associated with the consumption of these products. Sodium hypochlorite is currently the most widespread disinfectant used by fresh-cut industries. Neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) is a novel disinfection system that could represent an alternative to sodium hypochlorite. The aim of the study was to determine whether NEW could replace sodium hypochlorite in the fresh-cut produce industry. The effects of NEW, applied in different concentrations, at different treatment temperatures and for different times, in the reduction of the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and against the spoilage bacterium Erwinia carotovora were tested in lettuce. Lettuce was artificially inoculated by dipping it in a suspension of the studied pathogens at 10(8), 10(7) or 10(5) cfu ml(-1), depending on the assay. The NEW treatment was always compared with washing with deionized water and with a standard hypochlorite treatment. The effect of inoculum size was also studied. Finally, the effect of NEW on the indigenous microbiota of different packaged fresh-cut products was also determined. The bactericidal activity of diluted .

An official journal of the Poultry Science Association.

First self-published in 1921, Poultry Science is an internationally renowned monthly journal, known as the authoritative source for a broad range of poultry information and high-caliber research. The journal plays a pivotal role in the dissemination of preeminent poultry-related knowledge across all disciplines. Poultry Science is an Open Access journal with no subscription charges, meaning authors who publish here can make their research immediately, permanently, and freely accessible worldwide while retaining copyright to their work.

An international journal, Poultry Science publishes original papers, research notes, symposium papers, and reviews of basic science as applied to poultry. This authoritative source of poultry information is consistently ranked by Clarivate’s Impact Factor as one of the top 10 agriculture, dairy and animal science journals to deliver high-caliber research. Currently it is the highest-ranked (by Impact Factor and Eigenfactor) journal dedicated to publishing poultry research. Subject areas include breeding, genetics, education, production, management, environment, health, behavior, welfare, immunology, molecular biology, metabolism, nutrition, physiology, reproduction, processing, and products.

Shredded carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella or Listeria monocytogenes and washed for 1 or 2 min with chlorine (Cl; 200 ppm), peroxyacetic acid (PA; 40 ppm) or acidified sodium chlorite (ASC; 100, 200, 500 ppm) under simulated commercial processing conditions. After washed, the carrots were spin dried, packaged and stored at 5 °C for up to 10 days. Bacterial enumeration was significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) reduced by 1, 1.5 and 2.5 log CFU/g after washing with ASC 100, 250 and 500 ppm, respectively. All sanitizers reduced pathogen load below that of tap water wash and unwashed controls. During storage at 5 °C the bacterial load of all treatments increased gradually, but to different extent in different treatments. ASC inhibited bacterial growth more effectively than the other sanitizers and also maintained the lowest pathogen counts (<1 log CFU/g) during storage. Organic matter in the process water significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) reduced the antibacterial efficacy of Cl, but not that of PA or ASC. Therefore, ASC shows the potential to be used as a commercial sanitizer for washing shredded carrots.

In 1999 the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Listeria, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli (both O157 and non-O157) were estimated to cause more than 6 million illnesses and approximately 9000 deaths each year. However, the most recent Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention report on the sources and incidence of foodborne disease, released in 2004, has shown a dramatic decrease in
E. coli O157:H7 infections. Since raw beef products are the most frequently foodborne sources of these pathogens, the results of this
report demonstrate that the microbiological quality of raw beef has improved greatly. During the intervening years, post-harvest
interventions have continually improved, with new attention to hide decontamination and innovative treatments of carcasses. In
addition, a system to hold and test beef trim or ground beef for E. coli O157:H7 before its release into commerce has provided
an even greater level of safety. In this paper, we review the latest information on the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and other pathogens on beef, the evidence identifying the hide as the primary source of pathogens on beef carcasses, the efficacy of various hide and
carcass interventions, and other developments that have led or have the potential to lead to even greater improvements in the microbial quality of beef.
Published by Elsevier Ltd

To date, the effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water against bacteria associated with fresh pork has not been determined. Using a hand-held, food-grade garden sprayer, distilled water (W), chlorinated water (CL; 25 ppm), 2% lactic acid (LA), acidic EO water (EOA), or “aged” acidic EO water (AEOA; stored at 4 °C for 24 h) was sprayed (15 s) onto pork bellies inoculated with feces containing Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Salmonella typhimurium (ST), and Campylobacter coli (CC). Remaining bacterial populations were determined immediately following treatment, after 2 days of aerobic storage, and again after 5 days of vacuum-packaged, refrigerated storage (day 7). While LA and EOA significantly reduced (p<0.05) populations of CC at days 0 and 7, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between antimicrobial treatments when applied to pork inoculated with ST or LM. This study demonstrates that a 15-s spray with EOA has the ability to reduce CC associated with fresh pork surfaces. However, longer contact times may be necessary to reduce other microbial contaminants.

The Effect of pH on Inactivation of
Pathogenic Bacteria on Fresh-cut Lettuce by
Dipping Treatment with Electrolyzed Water

Fresh-cut lettuce samples inoculated with S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes
were dipped into 300 ppm electrolyzed water (EW) at pH 4 to 9 and 30 °C for 5 min. The effects of treatment pH
on bacterial reduction and visual quality of the lettuce were determined. The treatments at pH 4 and 8 resulted in
the most effective inactivation of E. coli O157:H7, but the effect of pH was not significant (P > 0.05) for S.
Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes. The treatment at pH 7 retained the best visual quality of lettuce, and
achieved a reduction of approximately 2 log CFU/g for above 3 bacteria.
Keywords: fresh-cut vegetables, electrolyzed water, dipping treatment, pH, bacterial reduction

To determine the efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as nonpathogenic E. coli, on the surface of tomatoes, and to evaluate the effect of rinsing with NEW on the organoleptic characteristics of the tomatoes.The bactericidal activity of NEW, containing 444 or 89 mg l−1 of active chlorine, was evaluated over pure cultures (8·5 log CFU ml−1) of the above-mentioned strains. All of them were reduced by more than 6 log CFU ml−1 within 5 min of exposure to NEW. Fresh tomatoes were surface-inoculated with the same strains, and rinsed in NEW (89 mg l−1 of active chlorine) or in deionized sterile water (control), for 30 or 60 s. In the NEW treatments, independent of the strain and of the treatment time, an initial surface population of about 5 log CFU sq.cm−1 was reduced to <1 log CFU sq.cm−1, and no cells were detected in the washing solution by plating procedure. A sensory evaluation was conducted to ascertain possible alterations in organoleptic qualities, yielding no significant differences with regard to untreated tomatoes.

The efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water for inactivatingEscherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7,S. enteritidis, or L. monocytogenes of approximately 108 CFU/ml was inoculated in 9 ml of electrolyzed oxidizing water (treatment) or 9 ml of sterile, deionized water (control) and incubated at 4 or 23°C for 0, 5, 10, and 15 min; at 35°C for 0, 2, 4, and 6 min; or at 45°C for 0, 1, 3, and 5 min. The surviving population of each pathogen at each sampling time was determined on tryptic soy agar. At 4 or 23°C, an exposure time of 5 min reduced the populations of all three pathogens in the treatment samples by approximately 7 log CFU/ml, with complete inactivation by 10 min of exposure. A reduction of ≥7 log CFU/ml in the levels of the three pathogens occurred in the treatment samples incubated for 1 min at 45°C or for 2 min at 35°C. The bacterial counts of all three pathogens in control samples remained the same throughout the incubation at all four temperatures. Results indicate that electrolyzed oxidizing water may be a useful disinfectant, but appropriate applications need to be validated.

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