In the dairy industry, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces are important issues and development of innovative strategies may improve food safety. This study was aimed to optimize the combined effect of alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) as alternative cleaning and disinfection procedure on stainless steel plates (SSP) with and without electropolishing. NEW at 10 ppm total available chlorine (TAC), achieved a ˃5 log CFU/mL reduction of milk spoilage bacterial suspension, grown in trypticase soy broth (8.7 log CFU/mL of each bacterial strain: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Micrococcus luteus) contacted for 30 s. An optimal design of experiments was used to assess the combined effect of cleaning with AEW, followed by disinfection with NEW (40 ppm TAC, contact time 3 min). Tested factors were contact time (10, 20 and 30 min), concentration of AEW (100, 200 and 300 mg NaOH/L), temperature (30, 40 and 50 °C), and surface type (304-2B SSP with or without electropolishing), using sixteen treatments with two replicates. The response variable was bacterial cells removal (log CFU/cm2). All main effects, two factors interactions and a quadratic term significantly influenced cells removal, and were modeled using a second order polynomial. Best cleaning procedures were significantly affected by surface roughness; electropolished SSP required 10 min, 100 mg/L AEW at 30 °C, whereas SSP without modification required 30 min, 300 mg/L AEW at 30 °C. From confirmatory tests cells removed were 3.90 ± 0.25 log CFU/cm2 for electropolished SSP, and 3.20 ± 0.20 log CFU/cm2 for SSP without modification. NEW is non-corrosive, and can be advantageously used for environmentally friendly cleaning and disinfection processes.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0956713515301468
The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of usage and normal concentrations of electrolyzed water in hospital. In our study, the effects of different concentrations of electrolyzed water named Envirolyte® (Industries International Ltd., Estonia) on two gram positive, four gram negative standard strains and clinical isolates of four gram negative, two gram positive, one spore-forming bacillus and Myroides spp strains that lead to hospital infections were researched. The effects of different concentrations and different contact times of Envirolyte® electrolyzed water on cited strains were researched through method of qualitative suspension tests. Petri dishes fo bacteria have been incubated at 37°C 48 hours. Bactericidal disinfectant was interpreted to be effective at the end of the period due to the lack of growth. Solutions to which disinfectant were not added were prepared with an eye to control reproduction and controlcultures were made by using neutralizing agents. 1/1, 1/2, and 1/10 concentrations of Envirolyte® electrolyzed water were found to be effective on the bacteria that lead to hospital infections used during all test times. As a conclusion, based upon the results we acquired, it was observed that Envirolyte® electrolyzed water of 100% concentration would be convenient to be used for disinfection when diluted to a usage concentration of 1/10.
The efficacy of thin-film diamond coated electrodes (DiaCell<sup<®< sup=””> 101) for disinfection of water artificially contaminated with Penicillium digitatum and Pseudomonas spp. was tested. Electrolysis process was performed with different operation conditions: current densities set at 4, 8, and 12A and water flow rate at 150, 300, and 600 L/h. For both pathogens, the experiments were performed in water suspensions at a final concentration of 105 CFU/ml. Tap water was used as a control. The results showed that fungal spores and bacterial cells were affected by flow rate and current density applied. The higher the water flow rate the greater the inactivation of the two microorganisms which were completely suppressed at high recirculation flow (300-600 L/h/cell). Pseudomonas spp. cells were inactivated at the highest current density applied (8-12A) after 6 min of electrolysis, whereas for P. digitatum the complete inactivation was observed at the same current densities after 12 min. The results obtained suggest that the two parameters can be modulated in order to achieve significant suppression in relation to the target microorganism and to obtain an antimicrobial effect without generation of chlorine.</sup<®<>
This study evaluated the efficacy of individual treatments (thermosonication [TS+DW] and slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and their combination on reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and spoilage microorganisms (total bacterial counts [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and yeast and mold counts [YMC]) on fresh-cut kale. For comparison, the antimicrobial efficacies of sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L) and sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L) were also evaluated. Each 10 g sample of kale leaves was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was then dip treated with deionized water (DW; control), TS+DW, and SAcEW at various treatment conditions (temperature, physicochemical properties, and time) to assess the efficacy of each individual treatment. The efficacy of TS+DW or SAcEW was enhanced at 40 °C for 3 min, with an acoustic energy density of 400 W/L for TS+DW and available chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L for SAcEW. At 40 °C for 3 min, combined treatment of thermosonication 400 W/L and SAcEW 5 mg/L (TS+SAcEW) was more effective in reducing microorganisms compared to the individual treatments (SAcEW, SC, SH, and TS+DW) and combined treatments (TS+SC and TS+SH), which significantly (P < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, TBC, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and YMC by 3.32, 3.11, 3.97, 3.66, 3.62, and >3.24 log CFU/g, respectively. The results suggest that the combined treatment of TS+SAcEW has the potential as a decontamination process in fresh-cut industry.
Super-oxidized water is one of the broad spectrum disinfectants, which was introduced recently. There are many researches to find reliable chemicals which are effective, inexpensive, easy to obtain and use, and effective for disinfection of microorganisms leading hospital infections. Antimicrobial activity of super-oxidized water is promising. The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Medilox® super-oxidized water that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as high level disinfectant.
In this study, super-oxidized water obtained from Medilox® [Soosan E & C, Korea] device, which had been already installed in our hospital, was used. Antimicrobial activities of different concentrations of super-oxidized water (1/1, 1/2, 1/5, 1/10, 1/20, 1/50, 1/100) at different exposure times (1, 2, 5, 10, 30 min) against six ATCC strains, eight antibiotic resistant bacteria, yeasts and molds were evaluated using qualitative suspension test. Dey-Engley Neutralizing Broth [Sigma-Aldrich, USA] was used as neutralizing agent.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4107540/
This study investigated the efficacy of sanitized ice for the reduction of bacteria in the water collected from the ice that melted during storage of whole and filleted Tilapia fish. Also, bacterial reductions on the fish fillets were investigated. The sanitized ice was prepared by freezing solutions of PRO-SAN® (an organic acid formulation) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW). For the whole fish study, the survival of the natural microflora was determined from the water of the melted ice prepared with PRO-SAN® and tap water. These water samples were collected during an 8 h storage period. For the fish fillet study, samples were inoculated with Escherichia coli K12, Listeria innocua, and Pseudomonas putida then stored on crushed sanitized ice. The efficacies of these were tested by enumerating each bacterial species on the fish fillet and in the water samples at 12 and 24 h intervals for 72 h, respectively. Results showed that each bacterial population was reduced during the test. However, a bacterial reduction of < 1 log CFU was obtained for the fillet samples. A maximum of approximately 2 log CFU and > 3 log CFU reductions were obtained in the waters sampled after the storage of whole fish and the fillets, respectively. These reductions were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the water from sanitized ice when compared with the water from the unsanitized melted ice. These results showed that the organic acid formulation and NEW considerably reduced the bacterial numbers in the melted ice and thus reduced the potential for cross-contamination.
The prevalence of Clostridium botulinum in European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) in Finland
The prevalence of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F in river lampreys caught in Finnish rivers was determined for the first time using a quantitative PCR-MPN (most probable number) analysis. One of 67 raw whole lampreys (1.5%) was positive for the botulinum neurotoxin type E gene, with the estimated C. botulinum count being 100spores/kg. Two type E strains were isolated from the positive sample and confirmed as different genotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Although the current procedure of bringing the charcoal-broiled lampreys to market has been without any further packaging or extended storage, interest towards increasing the shelf life of the product by vacuum-packaging is increasing. Our results demonstrate that C. botulinum type E may constitute a safety hazard in processed lampreys from the Baltic Sea area if packaging and extended shelf lives are to be used. To control the potential risk, a storage temperature of 3 degrees C or below should be recommended for these products.The prevalence of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F in river lampreys caught in Finnish rivers was determined for the first time using a quantitative PCR-MPN (most probable number) analysis. One of 67 raw whole lampreys (1.5%) was positive for the botulinum neurotoxin type E gene, with the estimated C. botulinum count being 100spores/kg. Two type E strains were isolated from the positive sample and confirmed as different genotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Although the current procedure of bringing the charcoal-broiled lampreys to market has been without any further packaging or extended storage, interest towards increasing the shelf life of the product by vacuum-packaging is increasing. Our results demonstrate that C. botulinum type E may constitute a safety hazard in processed lampreys from the Baltic Sea area if packaging and extended shelf lives are to be used. To control the potential risk, a storage temperature of 3 degrees C or below should be recommended for these products.
To ascertain the efficacy of neutral electrolysed water (NEW) in reducing Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes on glass and stainless steel surfaces. Its effectiveness for that purpose is compared with that of a sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution with similar pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) and active chlorine content.
First, the bactericidal activity of NEW was evaluated over pure cultures (8·5 log CFU ml−1) of the abovementioned strains: all of them were reduced by more than 7 log CFU ml−1 within 5 min of exposure either to NEW (63 mg l−1 active chlorine) or to NaClO solution (62 mg l−1 active chlorine). Then, stainless steel and glass surfaces were inoculated with the same strains and rinsed for 1 min in either NEW, NaClO solution or deionized water (control). In the first two cases, the populations of all the strains decreased by more than 6 log CFU 50 cm−2. No significant difference (P ≤ 0·05) was found between the final populations of each strain with regard to the treatment solutions (NEW or NaClO solution) or to the type of surface.